The language, for all intents and purposes, has been set in stone in the mind of the learner at this last point. Some potential for learning small superficial aspects of the language might still exist, such as vocabulary, but conceptual understanding of the material will not develop any further. Fossilization, thus, is a sort of stagnation in secondary language acquisition that cannot be overcome. Why Does Fossilization Happen? It varies widely by the individual and by the environment in which the language is learned.
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Sources Development of interlanguage According to Corder  this temporary and changing grammatical system , interlanguage, which is constructed by the learner, approximates the grammatical system of the target language. In the process of second language acquisition, interlanguage continually evolves into an ever-closer approximation of the target language, and ideally should advance gradually until it becomes equivalent, or nearly equivalent, to the target language.
However, during the second language learning process, an interlanguage may reach one or more temporary restricting phases when its development appears to be detained. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics. Fossilization of interlanguage Selinker suggests that the most important distinguishing factor related to second language acquisition is the phenomenon of fossilization.
Or is it perhaps not that they cannot overcome fossilization, but that they will not? Does complacency set in after second language learners begin to communicate, as far as they are concerned, effectively enough, in the target language, and as a result does motivation to achieve native-like competence diminish? Motivation is derived from the word motive which is defined as a need that requires satisfaction. These needs could be wants or desires that are acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, etc.
Motivation has been considered as one of the most important reasons that inspires a person to move forward in life. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement e. The concept of fossilization in SLA research is so intrinsically related to interlanguage that Selinker considers it to be a fundamental phenomenon of all SLA and not just to adult learners.
Fossilization has attracted considerable interest among researchers and has engendered significant differences of opinion. The term, borrowed from the field of paleontology , conjures up an image of dinosaurs being enclosed in residue and becoming a set of hardened remains encased in sediment.
Despite debate over the degree of permanence, fossilization is generally accepted as a fact of life in the process of SLA. Paleontology, sometimes spelled palaeontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch.
Research Many researchers have attempted to explain this. According to Guiora et al. Unlike children, who are generally more open to target language culture, adults have more rigid language ego boundaries. Thus, adults may be inclined to establishing their pre-existing cultural and ethnic identity, and this they do by maintaining their stereotypical accent.
See also Fossilization linguistics Related Research Articles Second-language acquisition SLA , second-language learning, or L2acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.
The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education. An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language which preserves some features of their first language, and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.
The generative approach to second language L2 acquisition SLA is a cognitive based theory of SLA that applies theoretical insights developed from within generative linguistics to investigate how second languages and dialects are acquired and lost by individuals learning naturalistically or with formal instruction in foreign, second language and lingua franca settings.
Central to generative linguistics is the concept of Universal Grammar UG , a part of an innate, biologically endowed language faculty which refers to knowledge alleged to be common to all human languages. UG includes both invariant principles as well as parameters that allow for variation which place limitations on the form and operations of grammar.
Research is conducted in syntax, phonology, morphology, phonetics, semantics, and has some relevant applications to pragmatics.
Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig is an American linguist. The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age.
The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful. Michael Hugh Long is an American linguist. Long contrasted this approach with the older method of focus on forms, which calls for exclusive focus on the linguistic forms when teaching a target language, often consisting of drill-type exercises such as conjugation exercises.
Long is also usually credited for introducing the Interaction Hypothesis, a theory of second language acquisition which places importance on face-to-face interaction. Professor Martha Young-Scholten is a linguist specialising in the phonology and syntax of second language acquisition SLA. Her PhD at the same institution concerned the structure of phonology in a second language.
In linguistics, according to J. Richard et al. It is considered by Norrish as a systematic deviation that happens when a learner has not learnt something, and consistently gets it wrong.
Theories of second-language acquisition are various theories and hypotheses in the field of second-language acquisition about how people learn a second language. Research in second-language acquisition is closely related to several disciplines including linguistics, sociolinguistics, psychology, neuroscience, and education, and consequently most theories of second-language acquisition can be identified as having roots in one of them.
Each of these theories can be thought of as shedding light on one part of the language learning process; however, no one overarching theory of second-language acquisition has yet been widely accepted by researchers. Individual variation in second-language acquisition is the study of why some people learn a second language better than others.
Unlike children who acquire a language, adults learning a second language rarely reach the same level of competence as native speakers of that language. Some may stop studying a language before they have fully internalized it, and others may stop improving despite living in a foreign country for many years.
It also appears that children are more likely than adults to reach native-like competence in a second language. There have been many studies that have attempted to explain these phenomena. The good language learner GLL studies are a group of academic studies in the area of second language acquisition that deal with the strategies that good language learners exhibit.
The rationale for the studies was that there is more benefit from studying the habits of successful language learners than there is from studying learners who fossilize at an early stage or stop studying altogether.
It was thought that if the strategies of successful learners could be found, then that knowledge could help learners who were not getting such good results.
Focus on form FonF is an approach to language education in which learners are made aware of the grammatical form of language features that they are already able to use communicatively.
It is contrasted with focus on forms, which is limited solely to the explicit focus on language features, and focus on meaning, which is limited to focus on meaning with no attention paid to form at all. For a teaching intervention to qualify as focus on form and not as focus on forms, the learner must be aware of the meaning and use of the language features before the form is brought to their attention. Focus on form was proposed by Michael Long in The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.
The idea existed in the s, but is usually credited to Michael Long for his paper The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. There are two forms of the Interaction Hypothesis: the "strong" form and the "weak" form. The "strong" form is the position that the interaction itself contributes to language development. The "weak" form is the position that interaction is simply the way that learners find learning opportunities, whether or not they make productive use of them.
In the course of learning a second language, learners will frequently encounter communication problems caused by a lack of linguistic resources. Communication strategies are strategies that learners use to overcome these problems in order to convey their intended meaning.
Strategies used may include paraphrasing, substitution, coining new words, switching to the first language, and asking for clarification. These strategies, with the exception of switching languages, are also used by native speakers. In second-language acquisition, the Acculturation Model is a theory proposed by John Schumann to describe the acquisition process of a second language L2 by members of ethnic minorities that typically include immigrants, migrant workers, or the children of such groups.
This acquisition process takes place in natural contexts of majority language setting. Elaine Tarone is a retired professor of linguistics and is a distinguished teaching professor emerita at the University of Minnesota.
Outer Thoughts (of Alexandre Rafalovitch)
Background Edit Before the interlanguage hypothesis rose to prominence, the principal theory of second-language L2 development was contrastive analysis. This approach was deficit-focused, in the sense that speech errors were thought to arise randomly and should be corrected. Variability Edit Interlanguage is claimed to be a language in its own right. Learner language varies much more than native-speaker language. Selinker noted that in a given situation the utterances produced by the learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning. For example, it may be more accurate, complex and fluent in one discourse domain than in another. Spontaneous conversation is more likely to involve the use of interlanguage.
Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Richard Nordquist Updated July 15, Interlanguage is the type of language or linguistic system used by second- and foreign-language learners who are in the process of learning a target language. Interlanguage pragmatics is the study of the ways non-native speakers acquire, comprehend, and use linguistic patterns or speech acts in a second language. Interlanguage theory is generally credited to Larry Selinker, an American professor of applied linguistics whose article "Interlanguage" appeared in the January issue of the journal International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. These authors have shown that L2 learners may arrive at representations which indeed account for the L2 input, though not in the same way as the grammar of a native speaker. The issue, then, is whether the interlanguage representation is a possible grammar, not whether it is identical to the L2 grammar. It was this view that initiated an expansion of research into psychological processes in interlanguage development whose aim was to determine what learners do in order to help facilitate their own learning, i.
Second Language Acquisition: Interlanguage and Fossilization
Sources Development of interlanguage According to Corder  this temporary and changing grammatical system , interlanguage, which is constructed by the learner, approximates the grammatical system of the target language. In the process of second language acquisition, interlanguage continually evolves into an ever-closer approximation of the target language, and ideally should advance gradually until it becomes equivalent, or nearly equivalent, to the target language. However, during the second language learning process, an interlanguage may reach one or more temporary restricting phases when its development appears to be detained. The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
Interlanguage and fossilization — thoughts of the language learner October 25, Language Acquisition I got suckered again. Steve Kaufmann - founder of thelinguist. Given that Steve does not hold much respect for educational theories, I thought it would be interesting to see him stretched a bit on the concepts that he must have observed first hands multiple times. My mistake. But I did spend time thinking about it, so I might as well put it down. Interlanguage is basically a concept that while learning a language L2, a person native in language L1 will go through particular stages dependent on the original language.