Naar navigatie springen Naar zoeken springen Theodor Herzl: Altneuland Altneuland Duits voor: Het oude nieuwe land , is een utopische roman die in werd gepubliceerd door Theodor Herzl , de grondlegger van het politieke zionisme. Door Israel Isidor Elyashev werd de tekst vertaald in het Jiddisch. In het verhaal wordt specifiek vermeld, dat dit eiland deel uitmaakt van de Cook Eilanden en dat het dicht bij Rarotonga ligt. Onderweg naar de Stille Oceaan hebben ze een tussenstop in Jaffa.
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Early life Herzl and his family, c. It is believed Herzl was of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic lineage predominately through his paternal line and to a lesser extent through the maternal line. Herzl had one sister, Pauline, a year older than he was, who died suddenly on 7 February , of typhus.
This passion later developed into a successful career in journalism and a less-celebrated pursuit of playwrighting. At the University of Vienna, Herzl studied law. He later became literary editor of Neue Freie Presse, and wrote several comedies and dramas for the Viennese stage.
His early work did not focus on Jewish life. It was of the feuilleton order, descriptive rather than political. As the Paris correspondent for Neue Freie Presse, Herzl followed the Dreyfus affair , a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from until its resolution in It was a notorious antisemitic incident in France in which a Jewish French army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. Herzl was witness to mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial. There has been some controversy surrounding the impact that this event had on Herzl and his conversion to Zionism.
Herzl himself stated that the Dreyfus case turned him into a Zionist and that he was particularly affected by chants of "Death to the Jews! This had been the widely held belief for some time. It was at this time that Herzl wrote his play "The New Ghetto," which shows the ambivalence and lack of real security and equality of emancipated, well-to-do Jews in Vienna.
The protagonist is an assimilated Jewish lawyer who tries unsuccessfully to break through the social ghetto enforced on Western Jews. A mental clash gripped Herzl, between the craving for literary success and a desire to act as a public figure. Beginning in late , Herzl wrote Der Judenstaat The State of the Jews , which was published February to immediate acclaim and controversy.
The book argued that the Jewish people should leave Europe for Palestine, their historic homeland. The Jews possessed a nationality; all they were missing was a nation and a state of their own. In Der Judenstaat he writes: "The Jewish question persists wherever Jews live in appreciable numbers.
Wherever it does not exist, it is brought in together with Jewish immigrants. We are naturally drawn into those places where we are not persecuted, and our appearance there gives rise to persecution.
This is the case, and will inevitably be so, everywhere, even in highly civilised countries—see, for instance, France—so long as the Jewish question is not solved on the political level. The Maccabeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who wish for a State will have it. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness.
And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare, will react powerfully and beneficially for the good of humanity. According to Norman Rose, Herzl "mapped out for himself the role of martyr I said to him: Theodor Herzl to Rev. Then the Jews will believe in me and follow me. The most suitable personage would be the German Kaiser. Herzl had earlier confessed to his friend Max Bodenheimer that he "wrote what I had to say without knowing my predecessors, and it can be assumed that I would not have written it [Der Judenstaat] had I been familiar with the literature".
Herzl presented his proposal to the Grand Vizier: the Jews would pay the Turkish foreign debt and help Turkey regain its financial footing in return for Palestine as a Jewish homeland.
Prior to leaving Istanbul, 29 June , Herzl was granted a symbolic medal of honor. In November they received him with curiosity, indifference and coldness. They granted Herzl the mandate of leadership for Zionism. Within six months this mandate had been expanded throughout Zionist Jewry: the Zionist movement grew rapidly. He was elected president of the Congress a position he held until his death in , and in he began a series of diplomatic initiatives to build support for a Jewish country.
He was received by Wilhelm II on several occasions, one of them in Jerusalem , and attended the Hague Peace Conference , enjoying a warm reception from many statesmen there.
Pinsker had never yet read it, but was aware of the distant and far off Hibbat Zion. To Herzl each dictator or leader had a nationalistic identity, even down to the Irish from Wolfe Tone onwards. He was drawn to the mawkishness of Judaism rendered distinctively as German.
But he remained convinced that Germany was the centre Hauptsitz of antisemitism rather than France. In a much quoted aside he noted "If there is one thing I should like to be, it is a member of old Prussian nobility". He fared best with Israel Zangwill , and Max Nordau. Baron Albert Rothschild had little to do with the Jews. Herzl was defiant of their social authority.
In Berlin they said Juden raus in a well worn phrase. Herzl therefore advocated a mass exodus from Europe to the Judenstaat.
William Hechler , public world power recognition of himself and Zionism. It was a brief but historic meeting. Palestine could offer a safe refuge for those fleeing persecution in Russia. A vociferous minority of opposition came from those who thought adoption of a Ugandan Plan over Palestine was a sell-out. Still later the East African Scheme failed, dying with Herzl himself.
It was taken off the agenda in After the failure of that scheme, which took him to Cairo , he received, through Leopold Greenberg , an offer August from the British government to facilitate a large Jewish settlement, with autonomous government and under British suzerainty , in British East Africa. At the same time, the Zionist movement was threatened by the Russian government.
Accordingly, Herzl visited St. Petersburg and was received by Sergei Witte , then finance minister, and Viacheslav Plehve , minister of the interior, the latter placing on record the attitude of his government toward the Zionist movement. On that occasion Herzl submitted proposals for the amelioration of the Jewish position in Russia.
He published the Russian statement, and brought the British offer, commonly known as the " Uganda Project ", before the Sixth Zionist Congress Basel, August , carrying the majority , 98 abstentions on the question of investigating this offer, after the Russian delegation stormed out.
Herzl did not live to see the rejection of the Uganda plan. A day before his death, he told the Reverend William H. Hechler : "Greet Palestine for me.
Hans Herzl, then thirteen, read the kaddish. Alkalai himself witnessed the rebirth of Serbia from Ottoman rule in the early and midth century and was inspired by the Serbian uprising and subsequent re-creation of Serbia.
The marriage was unhappy, although three children were born to it: Paulina, Hans and Margaritha Trude. Herzl had a strong attachment to his mother, who was unable to get along with his wife.
These difficulties were increased by the political activities of his later years, in which his wife took little interest. She died in at the age of 40 of a heroin overdose. He sought a personal salvation for his own religious needs and a universal solution, as had his father, to Jewish suffering caused by antisemitism. I have lost all trust in God. Tonight I have said Kaddish for my parents—and for myself, the last descendant of the family.
There is nobody who will say Kaddish for me, who went out to find peace—and who may find peace soon My instinct has latterly gone all wrong, and I have made one of those irreparable mistakes, which stamp a whole life with failure.
Then it is best to scrap it. She married Richard Neumann, a man 17 years her elder. Neumann lost his fortune in the Great Depression. The Nazis sent Trude and Richard to the Theresienstadt concentration camp where they died. Her body was burned. Her ashes were lost by accident.
In England he read extensively about his grandfather. Zionism had not been a significant part of his background in Austria, but Stephan became an ardent Zionist, was the only descendant of Theodor Herzl to have become one.
In late and early he took the opportunity to visit the British Mandate of Palestine "to see what my grandfather had started.
What most impressed him was the "look of freedom" on the faces of the children, which were not like the sallow look of those from the concentration camps of Europe. He wrote upon leaving Israel, "My visit to Israel is over It is said that to go away is to die a little. But sure, then, to return is somehow to be reborn. And I will return. The Zionist Executive had worked for years through Dr.
About 2, individuals were arrested. On 2 July , Norman wrote to Mrs. Stybovitz-Kahn in Haifa. Her father, Jacob Kahn, had been a good friend of Herzl and a well-known Dutch banker before the war. But the dreadful news of the last two days have done nothing to make this easier. Portrait of Herzl Demobilized from the British army in late spring , without money or job and despondent about his future, Norman followed the advice of Dr. Selig Brodetsky.
Book I I. Sunk in deep melancholy, Dr. Friedrich Loewenberg sat at a round marble table in his cafe on the Alsergrund. It was one of the most charming of Viennese cafes. The sickly, pale waiter greeted him submissively, and he would bow with formality to the equally pale girl cashier to whom he never spoke.
Stopping in Jaffa on their way to the Pacific, they find Palestine a backward, destitute and sparsely populated land, as it appeared to Herzl on his visit in As they stop over in Palestine on their way back to Europe in , they are astonished to discover a land drastically transformed. A Jewish organization officially named the "New Society" has since risen as European Jews have rediscovered and re-inhabited their Altneuland, reclaiming their own destiny in the Land of Israel. The country, whose leaders include some old acquaintances from Vienna, is now prosperous and well-populated, boasts a thriving cooperative industry based on state-of-the-art technology, and is home to a free, just, and cosmopolitan modern society. The duo arrives at the time of a general election campaign, during which a fanatical rabbi establishes a political platform arguing that the country belongs exclusively to Jews and demands non-Jewish citizens be stripped of their voting rights, but is ultimately defeated. Both ideological and utopian, it presents a model society which was to adopt a liberal and egalitarian social model, resembling a modern welfare society.
Texts Concerning Zionism: "Altneuland"
Vroege leven en studie[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Theodor Herzl werd geboren in het Hongaarse gedeelte van de toenmalige dubbelmonarchie Oostenrijk-Hongarije als zoon van Jacob Herzl en Jeanette Diamant , die in gehuwd waren. Zijn moeder kwam uit een textielfamilie en dweepte met de Duitse cultuur. Zijn vader was reeds een welgesteld zakenman die duidelijk wou laten weten een Hongaar te zijn. In kregen zij een dochtertje, Pauline. Zijn ouders waren niet orthodox , maar vierden in elk geval wel de joodse feesten.