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The leader in this field was Dr Hermann Plauson who in the s succeeded in generating significant quantities of electrical power comparable with modern solar photovoltaic systems of a similar scale Dr Plauson was an Estonian citizen who lived in Hamburg and Switzerland. He carried out experiments in Finland with aerostats manufactured from magnesium-aluminium alloy, covered with electrolytically deposited needles.
The needles were further doped with a radium compound to increase local ionisation of the air. This was the era in which the hands of watches were hand painted with radium to make them luminous in the dark. Zinc amalgam patches were also painted onto the aerostats. Plauson obtained a power output of between 0.
Hippolyte Charles Vion in Paris predated them all, putting forward proposals in the s and s. Heinrich Rudolph made an interesting contribution to the design of the aerostat collectors. In he designed an elliptical aerostat made up of faceted surfaces to minimise the effect of wind. The design uses the Coanda Effect to help keep the aerostat on station and minimise wind effects.
In recent times, the only person who seems to have been active in this field is Dr Oleg Jefimenko. From a low level 5m high simple zinc antenna we are able to obtain sufficient charge to light a number of white power LEDs.
Further experimental investigations with metallic aerostat collectors and cavity resonant slow wave antennae concepts are ongoing Methods of obtaining atmospheric electricity by means of metallic nettings set with spikes which are held by means of ordinary or anchored kite balloons made of fabric and filled with hydrogen, are in theory already known.
Atmospheric electricity obtained in this way has been suggested to be used in the form of direct current for the charging of accumulators. This knowledge however is at present only theoretical as the conversion in practice has hitherto been a failure.
No means are known of protecting the apparatus from destruction by lightning. The balloons used for collecting the charge must also me be made of very large size in order to be able to support the weight of the metallic netting and the heavy cable connections. Instead of using heavy metallic netting as collectors attached to single air ballons of non-conducting materials which are liable to be torn and are permeable to the gas, it is proposed to use metallic balloon collectors which have the following important advantages a The metallic cases are impenetrable to helium and hydrogen; they also represent large metallic weather-proof collecting surfaces.
It is further proposed to use a collecting aerial network of several separate collectors spread out in the air above the earth, which collectors are interconnected by electrical conductors.
According to this invention charges of atmospheric electricity are not directly converted into mechanical energy, and this forms the main difference from previous inventions, but the static electricity which runs to earth through aerial conductors in the form of direct current of very high voltage and low current strength is converted into electro-dynamic energy in the form of high frequency vibrations.
Many advantages are thereby obtained and all disadvantages avoided. The very high voltage of static electricity of a low current strength can be converted by this invention to voltages more suitable for technical purposes and of greater strength.
By the use of closed oscillatory circuits it is possible to obtain electromagnetic waves of various amplitude and thereby to increase the degree of resonance of such current. Such resonance allows various values of inductance to be chosen whereby again the governing of the starting and stopping of machines driven thereby by simply tuning the resonance between coils of the machine and the transformer circuit forming the resonance can easily be obtained.
Further, such currents have the property of being directly available for various uses, even without employing them for driving motors, of which there may be particularly mentioned, lighting, production of heat and use in electro-chemistry. Further, with such currents a series of apparatus may be fed without direct current supply through conductors and also the electro-magnetic high frequency currents may be converted by means of special motors adapted for electro-magnetic oscillations into mechanical energy, or finally converted by special machines into alternating current of low frequency or even into direct current of high potential.
The invention is more particularly described with reference to the accompanying diagrams in which: Figure 1 is and explanatory figure.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view of the simplest form. Figure 3 shows a method of converting atmospheric electrical energy for use with motors. Figure 4 is a diagram showing the use of protective means.
Figure 5 is a diagram of an arrangement for converting large current strengths. Figure 6 is a diagram of an arrangement including controlling means. Figure 7 shows means whereby the spark gap length can be adjusted. Figure 8 shows a unipolar connection for the motor. Figure 9 shows a weak coupled system suitable for use with small power motors.
Figures 10, 11, and 12 show modified arrangements. Figure 13 shows a form of inductive coupling for the motor circuit. Figure 14 is a modified form of Figure 13 with inductive coupling. Figure 15 is an arrangement with non-inductive motor. Figure 16 is an arrangement with coupling by condenser.
Figure 17, 18, and 19 are diagrams of further modifications. Figure 20 shows a simple form in which the serial network is combined with special collectors. Figure 21 shows diagrammatically an arrangement suitable for collecting large quantities of energy.
Figure 22 is a modified arrangement having two rings of collectors. Figure 23 shows the connection for three rings of collectors. Figure 24 shows a collecting balloon and diagram of its connection of condenser batteries. Figure 25 and 26 show modified collector balloon arrangements.
Figure 27 shows a second method of connecting conductor for the balloon aerials. Figure 28 shows an auto-transformer method of connection. Figure 29 shows the simplest form of construction with incandescent cathode. Figure 30 shows a form with cigar shaped balloon. Figure 31 is a modified arrangement. Figure 32 shows a form with cathode and electrode enclosed in a vacuum chamber.
Figure 33 is a modified form of Figure Figure 34 shows an arc light collector. Figure 35 shows such an arrangement for alternating current. Figure 36 shows an incandescent collector with Nernst lamp.
Figure 37 shows a form with a gas flame. Figure 1 illustrates a simple diagram for converting static electricity into dynamic power of a high number of oscillations. For the sake of clearness in the drawings an influence machine is assumed to be employed and not an aerial antenna. When the disc of the static influence machine is rotated by mechanical means, the combs collect the electric charges one the positive and the other the negative, and charge the condensers 5 and 6 until such a high potential is formed across the spark gap , that the spark gap is jumped.
As the spark gap forms a closed circuit with condensers 5 and 6, and inductive resistance 9, as is well known, waves of high frequency electromagnetic oscillations will pass in this circuit. The high frequency of the oscillations produced in the primary circuit induces waves of the same periodicity in the secondary circuit. Thus in the primary circuit electromagnetic oscillations are formed by the passage of the spark over the spark gap and these waves are maintained by fresh charges of static electricity.
By suitably selecting the ratio between the number of the coils in the primary and secondary circuits with regard to a correct application of the co-efficients of resonance especially, inductance and resistance the high voltage of the primary circuit may be suitably converted into low voltage and high current strength. When the oscillatory discharges in the primary circuit becomes weaker or entirely cease, the condensers are charged again by the static electricity until the accumulated charge again breaks down the spark gap.
All this is repeated as long as electricity is produced by the static machine employing mechanical energy. An elementary form of the invention is shown in Figure 2 in which two spark gaps in parallel are used one of which may be termed the working gap 7 in Figure 2, whilst the second serves as a safety device for excess voltage and consists of a larger number of spark gaps than the working section, which gaps are arranged in series and are bridged by very small capacities as is illustrated in a, b, c, Figure 2 which allow of uniform sparking in the safety section.
In Figure 2 A is the aerial antenna for collecting charges of atmospheric electricity. Now when through the aerial A the positive atmospheric electricity seeks to combine with the negative charge to earth, this is prevented by the air gap between the spark gaps. The resistance of the spark gap 7 is, as shown in the drawings, lower than that of the other safety section which consists of three spark gaps connected in series, and consequently a three times greater air resistance is offered by the latter.
So long, therefore, as the resistance of the spark gap 7 is not overloaded, so that the other spark gaps have an equal resistance with it the discharges take place only over spark gap 7.
Should however the voltage be increased by and influences so that it might be dangerous for charging the condensers 5 and 6 or for the coil insulation 9 and 10 in consequence of break down, by a correct regulation of this spark gap the second spark gap can discharge free from inductive effects direct to earth without endangering the machine. Without this second spark gap, arranged in parallel having a higher resistance than the working spark gap it is impossible to collect and render available large quantities of electrical energy.
The actions of this closed oscillation circuit consisting of spark gap 7, two condensers 5 and 6, primary coil 9, and also secondary coil 10 is exactly the same as the one described in Figure 1 with the arrangement of the static induction machine with the only difference that here the second spark gap is provided.
The electromagnetic high frequency alternating current obtained can be tapped off from the conductors 11 and 12 for lighting and heating purposes.
Special kinds of motors adapted for working with these peculiar electrical charges may be connected at 14 and 15 which can work with static electricity charges or with high frequency oscillations. In addition to the use of spark gaps in parallel a second measure of security is also necessary for taking off the current.
This precaution consists according to this invention, in the introduction of and method of connecting certain protective electromagnets or choking coils in the aerial circuit as shown by S in Figure 3. A single electromagnet only having a core of the thinnest possible separate laminations is connected with the aerial. In the case of high voltages in the aerial network or at places where there are frequent thunder storms, several such magnets may however be connected in series.
In the case of large units or plants several electromagnets can be employed in parallel or in series parallel. The windings of these electromagnets may be simply connected in series with the aerials.
In this case the winding preferably consists of several thin parallel wires, which make up together, the necessary section. The winding may be made of primary and secondary windings in the form of a transformer. The primary windings will be then connected in series with the aerial network, and the secondary winding more or less short-circuited over a regulating resistance or an induction coil. In the latter case it is possible to regulate to a certain extent the effect of the choking coils.
In the further description of the connecting and constructional diagrams the aerial electromagnet choke coil is indicated by a simple ring S. Figure 3 shows the simplest way of converting atmospheric electricity into electromagnetic wave energy by the use of special motors adapted for high oscillatory currents or static charges of electrical energy.
Recent improvements in motors for working with static charges and motors working by resonance, that is to say, having groups of tuned electromagnetic cooperating circuits render this possible but such do not form part of the present invention. A motor adapted to operate with static charges will for the sake of simplicity be diagrammatically indicated by the two semicircles 1 and 2 and the rotor of the motor by a ring M Figure 3.
A is a vertical aerial or aerial network. S the safety choke or electromagnet with coil O as may be seen is connected with the aerial A. Adjacent the electromagnet S the aerial conductor is divided into three circuits, the circuit 8 giving the safety spark gap, the circuit 7 with the working spark gap, and then a circuit including the stator terminal 1, the rotor and stator terminal 2 at which a connection is made to the earth wire.
The two spark gaps are also connected metallically with the earth wire. The method of working these diagrams is as follows: The positive atmospheric electric charge collected tends to combine with the negative electricity or earth electricity connected with the earth wire.
It travels along the aerial A through the electromagnet S without begin checked as it flows in the same direction as the direct current.
The cause for this is not to be looked for in the fact that the electricity freely available in atmospheric air is not to be exploited at all, but primarily in that the science before solution of this problem had to solve a set from preliminary questions to, by their clarifying only the possibility of an utilization of atmospheric electricity became at all conceivable. Only in the last years their utilization could be made due to new experiences and investigations on that areas of the atmospheric electricity. The knowledge of the effect and utilization of atmospheric electricity hand back already many thousand years, as we can infer from the holy writing. Thus we read all geweihten persons, with exception of the upper priest in the Bible Moses that the tabernacle in all-holiest of the temple Jehova possessed the power to kill when affecting by a thunderbolt or a fire. Furthermore we read that 40 priests had dared enter in the absence of Moses and Aaron, and that from the tabernacle lightning drove out, which killed all 40 priests. The fact that the charge kept itself good and worked well is only the constant shop with atmospheric electricity to attribute as well as the dry climate in Palestine. It comes out from the Biblical description that the ssundeslade out well isolationable noble wood had fitted made and also gold and such a thing from the inside and outside.
Category: Hermann H. Plauson